The present teacher education and training environment in England is characterized by schools and university partnerships and school-based only frameworks. There are however an increasing body of 'independent' teacher education providers. Out of this 'new' thinking has emerged labels and entities such as School Direct, Teach First, Troops to Teachers and School-Centred Initial Teacher Training.
This occurrence suggests that increasingly, research in teacher education and training is being carried out in a variety of schools' contexts. This also provides researchers with a larger 'ground' in which to work and a diverse array of potential responses and participants.
While there is always a 'downside' some may argue that the positives (such as the potential for 'rich data' and increased understanding of teacher education and training issue based on a wider pool of participants) out-weight the potential negatives – some are highlighted later in this article. Additionally, the highlighted negatives are also preventable with proper understanding and application of research knowledge and procedures. However, given this 'new' environment here are a few ethical and methodological concerns that I see as key.
Key Ethical Concerns
Increase in the pool of research participants and places means potentially, there is an increase in the number of people who can be negatively affected. This therefore lends importance to the need to promise and maintain both confidentiality and anonymity and for researchers to be vigilant in these matters.
A lapse in confidentiality and anonymity can have adverse effects on participants, bringing the researcher and her or his affiliate University into disrepute and impact negatively relations between University, partnering schools and sometimes Local Educational Authority. On the extreme end of the spectrum of negative effects, a lapse in confidentiality and anonymity could lead to Job loss, or participants being ostracized especially when the research involves sensitive issues such as race, diversity, social Justice or culture.
It is my practice – where possible- to omit names and places in my research reports. However, if these are integral to your study they should only be included after obtaining appropriate consent from potential participants. The use of pseudonyms to conceal identities is a long-standing practice among researchers and continue to aid in achieving anonymity. Additionally, confidential information about children or staff should never be disclosed at any cost.
Other ethical issues which are akin to confidentiality and anonymity is openness, honesty and autonomy . As a researcher I always inform key people in the school and assure participants of their rights to withdraw from the researcher at any time, they should wish to do so, without fear of being penalized.
It is my opinion that if these ethical issues are not carefully attended to, they may lead to less than complete and honest responses from research participants which bring into question the research findings and concluding.
Key Methodological / Procedural Concerns
The 'new' environment with its wide and diverse array of potential responses and participants provides researchers with an enlarged participant pool from which to draw. This fact suggests the need for caution and care in selecting participants for your research. Participants must be 'information rich'. Guba and Lincoln (1998) define 'information rich' participants as those who are able to provide insight into the issues being researched. It is worth stating here that inappropriate participants will affect the accuracy of the conclusions you draw and the potential impact your study could have.
The other key methodological or procedural concern is the need for a clearly defined research problem. In fact, getting this right, not only helps in selecting 'information rich' participants, but aid university based researchers to explain to potential respondents or participants in partnering schools the research focus and guides researchers' actions and thoughts. Additionally, a clearly defined research problem also helps to determine an appropriate research framework or procedure (eg Biographical, Ethnographic, Phenomenological, or Applied Research) that could have been used to solve a problem, data collection methods (interview, survey, experimental) and data analysis approach (qualitative and / or quantitative)
So what have I said?
I said, key ethical concerns for researching teacher education in the 'new' teacher education environment in England are confidentiality and anonymity, openness, honesty and autonomy. Key methodological or procedural concerns are participants' selection and clearly defined research problems. These are critical in light of the expanded field of potential participant which emerges from the new environment.
Guba, E., G & Lincoln, Y., S. (1998). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In Denzin, N., K., & Lincoln, Y., S. The Landscape of qualitative research theories and issues. Sage USA.